On the same day, Shōkaku was hit by four torpedoes from the submarine Cavalla and sank with heavy loss of life. , The Axis-aligned states which assisted Japan included the authoritarian government of Thailand, which formed a cautious alliance with the Japanese in 1941, when Japanese forces issued the government with an ultimatum following the Japanese invasion of Thailand. Although fierce fighting continued on Leyte for months, the US Army was in control.  In March 1938, Nationalist forces won their first victory at Taierzhuang, but then the city of Xuzhou was taken by the Japanese in May. Gathering five heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, and a destroyer, he sailed to engage the Allied force off the coast of Guadalcanal. "The Lake Khasan Affair of 1938: Overview and Lessons". On 8 December 1941, Japanese bombers struck American airfields on Luzon.  During a series of meetings held from 2–5 April, the Naval General Staff and representatives of the Combined Fleet reached a compromise. Cherevko, "Hammer and Sickle against Samurai Sword" ch. Beehive. In early September 1942 Japanese marines attacked a strategic Royal Australian Air Force base at Milne Bay, near the eastern tip of New Guinea. The Japanese exploited this lack of unity to press ahead in their offensives. I got this game from a friend of mine and I personally have never played it. As the advance on Manila continued from the north and the south, the Bataan Peninsula was rapidly secured. War in the Pacific – The Campaign Against Imperial Japan, 1941-45 is a multi-level simulation of the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War Two. All US carriers had combat-information centers, which interpreted the flow of radar data and radioed interception orders to the combat air patrols. 0000013377 00000 n
, China suffered enormous civilian losses in the war.  At the time Soviet participation was seen as crucial to tie down the large number Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea, keeping them from being transferred to the Home Islands to mount a defense to an invasion.  In fact, the Imperial GHQ noted, should acceptable negotiations be reached with the Americans, the attacks were to be canceled—even if the order to attack had already been given. TITLE: War in the Pacific PUBLISHER: Simulation Publications Incorporated (SPI) SCOPE: RULEBOOK VERBAGE: GAME BOX VERBAGE: YEAR PUBLISHED (EDITIONS): 1978.Only one published edition by SPI. Allied Off-Map Movement Display - $4 each.  However, there was little opposition at the beaches as the Japanese had decided to meet the Americans farther inland out of range of naval gunfire. The Japanese had spent the better part of a year reconstituting their carrier air groups, and the Americans had destroyed 90% of it in two days. The Americans then targeted the Musashi and sank it under a barrage of torpedo and bomb hits. Natural caves were enlarged, and many new ones were blasted out. Japanese planning was for fighting a limited war where Japan would seize key objectives and then establish a defensive perimeter to defeat Allied counterattacks, which in turn would lead to a negotiated peace. Allied Naval Task Force Displays - $4 each. In the Burma campaign, other members, such as the anti-British Indian National Army of Free India and the Burma National Army of the State of Burma were active and fighting alongside their Japanese allies. War in the Pacific is a multi-level simulation of the Pacific Theatre of Operations during World War II. It was one of the worst Allied naval defeats of the war. (2006) "Germany and the Second World War: The Global War", p. 175, Cited in Frank Crowley (1973) Vol 2, p. 51. With their position in the Solomons disintegrating, the Japanese modified the Z Plan by eliminating the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, and the Bismarck Archipelago as vital areas to be defended. Meng Guoxiang & Zhang Qinyuan, 1995. On the night of 8–9 August, Mikawa's quick response resulted in the Battle of Savo Island, a brilliant Japanese victory during which four Allied heavy cruisers were sunk, while no Japanese ships were lost. 7 table 7. These included 3 million deaths in the Bengal famine of 1943 and 0.25 to 1 million deaths in British Burma. Later in the afternoon, aircraft from the two remaining American carriers found and destroyed Hiryū. Strength of the US Military in Asia and the Pacific as of war's end: Army: 1,770,036. These were enough to remove the Japanese margin of superiority in the coming Midway attack.. They were soundly defeated in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol by a mixed Soviet and Mongolian force led by Georgy Zhukov. All forces for the Marianas operation were to be commanded by Admiral Raymond A. Spruance. , 800,000 Japanese civilians and over 2 million Japanese soldiers died during the war. War in the Pacific -WIP SPI 1978 WWII: ETO-WW2; SPI Decision games published a DOS application computer War in Europe which inherently includes War in the East 2nd edition, War in the West. The locations of this first wave of Japanese attacks included the American territories of Hawaii, the Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island and the British territories of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong. The campaign opened with a landing on the small island of Tarakan on 1 May. 0000000938 00000 n
Two battle-hardened Australian divisions were moving from the Middle East for Singapore. The game enables players to recreate the entire course of the war, from the opening Japanese attack on December 7, 1941 to the climactic Allied assaults in the closing days of 1945. A month after the invasion of Saipan, the US recaptured Guam and captured Tinian. A-GO envisioned a decisive fleet action that would be fought somewhere from the Palaus to the Western Carolines. The Australian Government ... regards the Pacific struggle as primarily one in which the United States and Australia must have the fullest say in the direction of the democracies' fighting plan. In February 1944 the Japanese mounted a local counter-attack in Arakan. Having accomplished their objectives during the First Operation Phase with ease, the Japanese now turned to the second. In August, Japanese and US carrier forces engaged in an indecisive clash known as the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Both of her attacks hit Yorktown and put her out of action. The US thereby reversed its opposition to unrestricted submarine warfare. In a series of amphibious assaults between 1 May and 21 July, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. On 24 June, General Holland Smith replaced General Ralph C. Smith, the commanding general of the 27th Division, who he believed lacked an aggressive spirit. British Empire POWs are given a death rate of 25%.  Four days after Pearl Harbor, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States, drawing the country into a two-theater war.  Including them, an academic study published in the United States estimates Chinese military casualties at 6.75 million with 3.75 million killed or missing. Some 35 Dutch comfort women brought a successful case before the Batavia Military Tribunal in 1948. The troops that occupied Rangoon linked up with Fourteenth Army five days later, securing the Allies' lines of communication. After Coral Sea, the Japanese had four fleet carriers operational—Sōryū, Kaga, Akagi and Hiryū—and believed that the Americans had a maximum of two—Enterprise and Hornet. On 12 March 1944, the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed the occupation of the Northern Marianas, specifically the islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. More than 140,000–240,000 people died as a direct result of these two bombings. The game enables In the middle of these uncoordinated attacks, a Japanese scout aircraft reported the presence of an American task force, but it was not until later that the presence of an American carrier was confirmed. War in the Pacific - The Campaign Against Imperial Japan, 1941-45 is a multi-level simulation of the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War Two. In October 1943 Winston Churchill appointed Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten as its Supreme Commander. Page 317. On 9 December 1941, after Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, China finally declared war against Japan. American planners recognized the strategic importance of the island, which was only 5 miles (8.0 km) long, 8 square miles (21 km2) in area and had no native population. The hidden guns and defenses survived the constant bombardment virtually unscathed. War in the Pacific is a multi-level simulation of the Pacific theater of operations during World War II. Vietnam 1945: The Quest for Power.  But many Japanese went into hiding and the campaign was not declared over until 2 July. SPI War in the Pacific: the Campaign Against Imperial Japan, 1941-45. A total of 11 miles (18 km)s of tunnels were constructed. 33, No. On 1 March, units of IV Corps captured the supply centre of Meiktila, throwing the Japanese into disarray. Still perhaps the best sim on the subject.  During the battle, Japan used chemical weapons.. The carriers embarked a total of just 108 aircraft. War in the Pacific is not a simple game; there are a great The invasion of Peleliu in the Palau Islands on 15 September, was notable for a drastic change in Japanese defensive tactics, resulting in the highest casualty rate amongst US forces in an amphibious operation during the Pacific War. The seizure of islands in the Ryukyus was to have been the last step before the actual invasion of the Japanese home islands. Another large second landing took place two days later at Lamon Bay, south of Manila, by the 48th infantry Division. Many other ships of Center Force were attacked, but continued on. Following this attack, hundreds of the native population committed mass suicide by throwing themselves off the cliffs onto the rocks below near the northern tip of the island. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. This was followed on 1 June by simultaneous assaults in the north west, on the island of Labuan and the coast of Brunei. , The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation began on 9 August 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and was the last campaign of the Second World War and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace.  The necessity of the atomic bombings has long been debated, with detractors claiming that a naval blockade and incendiary bombing campaign had already made invasion, hence the atomic bomb, unnecessary. Concurrently, Japanese forces invaded southern and eastern Thailand and were resisted for several hours, before the Thai government signed an armistice and entered an alliance with Japan. Philippines: 377,500, 121,100, (498,600) After some initial success, they were stalled by disease and casualties, but they could be reinforced while the Americans and Filipinos could not. This presented the Japanese with an opportunity to exploit it. No errata listed for others.) The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Decision Games: War in the Pacific. In return, however, Yamamoto had to agree to two demands from the Naval General Staff, both of which had implications for the Midway operation. The Naval General Staff advocated an advance to the south to seize parts of Australia. In the Pacific, the Allies divided operational control of their forces between two supreme commands, known as Pacific Ocean Areas and Southwest Pacific Area. Yamamoto also agreed to include an attack to seize strategic points in the Aleutian Islands simultaneously with the Midway operation.  The pace of conquest was rapid: Bali and Timor also fell in February. This would equate to a total of 3.82 million combined NRA/CCP casualties, of which 1.74 million were killed or missing. From 12 November to 15 November, Japanese and American surface ships engaged in fierce night actions in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, one of the only two battles in the Pacific War during which battleships fought each other, that saw two US admirals killed in action and two Japanese battleships sunk. The island was used by the Japanese as an early-warning station against impending air raids on Japanese cities, additionally, Japanese aircraft based on Iwo Jima were able to attack the B-29s on their bombing missions on route to their missions and on the returning leg home, and even to attack installations in the Marianas themselves. , In September 1940, Japan decided to cut China's only land line to the outside world by seizing French Indochina, which was controlled at the time by Vichy France. Suribachi, an inactive volcano, where most of the island's defenses were concentrated. In an effort to discourage Japanese militarism, Western powers including Australia, the United States, Britain, and the Dutch government in exile, which controlled the petroleum-rich Dutch East Indies, stopped selling oil, iron ore, and steel to Japan, denying it the raw materials needed to continue its activities in China and French Indochina. The two Allied attacks met on 22 June, breaking the Japanese siege of Imphal. On 26 July 1945, the President of the United States Harry S. Truman, the Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China Chiang Kai-shek and the Prime Minister of Great Britain Winston Churchill issued the Potsdam Declaration, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. They were beaten back by Allied forces (primarily Australian Army infantry battalions and Royal Australian Air Force squadrons, with United States Army engineers and an anti-aircraft battery in support), the first defeat of the war for Japanese forces on land.. The US Navy did not seek out the Japanese fleet for a decisive battle, as Mahanian doctrine would suggest (and as Japan hoped); the Allied advance could only be stopped by a Japanese naval attack, which oil shortages (induced by submarine attack) made impossible..  They split into three forces. The Japanese originally perceived the American landings as nothing more than a reconnaissance in force.. Another argument in favor of the atomic bombs is that they helped avoid Operation Downfall, or a prolonged blockade and conventional bombing campaign, any of which would have exacted much higher casualties among Japanese civilians. China (inc. Hong Kong): 435,600, 20,100, (455,700)  The ability to plan and execute such a complex operation in the space of 90 days was indicative of Allied logistical superiority. By November these plans were essentially complete, and were modified only slightly over the next month. War in the Pacific (SPI/DG) - errata (official and unofficial), review, variant and errata (zipped RTF files), article index, review (Word file), rules for DG ed. American submarines accounted for 56% of the Japanese merchantmen sunk; mines or aircraft destroyed most of the rest.  On 7 August, US Marines landed on the islands of Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomons. Hsi-sheng Ch'i, in James C. Hsiung and Steven I. Levine. These landings prepared the way for Nimitz's island-hopping campaign towards Japan. After being driven out of Malaya, Allied forces in Singapore attempted to resist the Japanese during the Battle of Singapore, but were forced to surrender to the Japanese on 15 February 1942; about 130,000 Indian, British, Australian and Dutch personnel became prisoners of war. The Imperial Japanese Navy did not integrate its units into permanent theater commands. Page 61. The attention of the Allies then switched back to the central east coast, with the last major amphibious assault of World War II, at Balikpapan on 1 July. War in the Pacific is a multi-level simulation of the Pacific theater of operations during World War II. However, the Allies were much better able to replace these losses. Sakhalin, the Aleutian, and Kuril Islands: 8,200, 3,200, (11,400) On 15 January, Wavell moved to Bandung in Java to assume control of ABDACOM.  In 1945, for a brief period just before the Japanese surrender, the Soviet Union and Mongolia engaged Japanese forces in Manchuria and northeast China. The United States used the ensuing period to turn its vast industrial potential into increased numbers of ships, planes, and trained aircrew. The Imperial Japanese Army opposed the plan and it was rejected in favour of a policy of isolating Australia from the United States via blockade by advancing through the South Pacific.  Dracula was launched on 1 May, to find that the Japanese had already evacuated Rangoon. Simulations Publications, Inc. (SPI) was an American publisher of board wargames and related magazines, particularly its flagship Strategy & Tactics, in the 1970s and early 1980s.It produced an enormous number of games and introduced innovative practices, changing the course of the wargaming hobby in its bid to take control of the hobby away from then-dominant Avalon Hill. After an intense seven day bombardment the main landings on Okinawa took place on 1 April, on the Hagushi beaches near the central part of the island's west coast. Because the attack happened without a declaration of war or explicit warning, it was judged by the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. On the night of 24–25 October, the Southern Force under Nishimura attempted to enter Leyte Gulf from the south through Surigao Strait, where an American-Australian force led by Rear Admiral Jesse Oldendorf and consisting of six battleships, eight cruisers, and 26 destroyers, ambushed the Japanese. Pillboxes, bunkers and other defensive works were built close to the ground. The strike force found and struck only an oiler, the Neosho, and the destroyer Sims. Then followed the invasion and occupation of Panay, Cebu, Negros and several islands in the Sulu Archipelago. Malaya & Singapore: 8,500, 2,900, (11,400) Allied resistance, at first symbolic, gradually began to stiffen.  However, other scholars have argued that the atomic bombings shocked the Japanese government into surrender, with the Emperor finally indicating his wish to stop the war.  The Second Operational Phase was planned to expand Japan's strategic depth by adding eastern New Guinea, New Britain, the Aleutians, Midway, the Fiji Islands, Samoa, and strategic points in the Australian area. Slim feared that the Japanese would defend Rangoon house-to-house during the monsoon, which would commit his army to prolonged action with disastrously inadequate supplies, and in March he had asked that a plan to capture Rangoon by an amphibious force, Operation Dracula, which had been abandoned earlier, be reinstated. 2007. p. 4. Although Zuikaku was left undamaged, aircraft and personnel losses to Zuikaku were heavy and the Japanese were unable to support a landing on Port Moresby. They suffered 14,000 casualties, half their strength. This means presented itself, with the advent of atomic bombs, which worked admirably in convincing the Japanese to sue for peace [unconditionally], without American casualties". The US Marines reached northernmost tip of Saipan, Marpi Point, twenty-four days after the landing. This was done in contrast to the British stance towards Thailand, who had faced them in combat as they invaded British territory, and the United States had to block British efforts to impose a punitive peace. It also provoked the Japanese to mount major offensives themselves the following year. Japan Proper: 58,100, 45,800, (103,900)  The Japanese then developed a new plan, known as A-GO. The militia, worn out and severely depleted by casualties, were relieved in late August by regular troops from the Second Australian Imperial Force, returning from action in the Mediterranean theater. Japanese commerce protection was "shiftless beyond description,"[k] and convoys were poorly organized and defended compared to Allied ones, a product of flawed IJN doctrine and training – errors concealed by American faults as much as Japanese overconfidence. The Dutch government-in-exile (as the possessor of the Dutch East Indies) were also involved. Japan's ally Germany lost 10 submarines and four auxiliary cruisers (Thor, Michel, Pinguin, and Kormoran) in the Indian and Pacific oceans.  Historian Richard B. Frank wrote that a Soviet invasion of Japan was never likely because they had insufficient naval capability to mount an amphibious invasion of Hokkaidō. Other areas, including India, Hawaii, and the rest of Australia remained under separate local commands. The ultimate strategic value of the landings is still contested.. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 09:15. The major Allied participants were China, the United States and the British Empire. 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